Fragrance Removal

Fragrance is a term used to describe a mixture of chemicals often composed of essential oils, chemicals with a strong aroma, and solvents that together produce a “pleasant” scent to the general population. In order to achieve a particular scent, a variety of different ingredients from natural and synthetic sources may be used. Some common chemical classes used include, but are not limited to: esters, terpenes, aromatic organics, amines, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and thiols. For individuals with MCS, many chemicals and substances with strong scents are the most common triggers for their symptoms and can include: perfumes, cleaning/disinfecting agents, pesticides, cigarette smoke, and many others.

EnviroKlenz’s broad capabilities and efficacy towards MCS triggers can be demonstrated against commonly encountered chemicals and chemical classes associated with fragrances, indoor air quality issues, and pollutants (Figure 2). For the comparison, EnviroKlenz technology and a commonly used absorbent were challenged against a variety of target chemical compounds that broadly encompass different types of chemical structures and fragrance profiles. The challenge compounds were: cadaverine (a toxic diamine), isovaleric acid (organic fatty acid that can be present in essential oils), acetaldehyde (a common VOC, indoor air contaminant, and component of cigarette smoke), ethyl mercaptan (a powerful sulfur-containing pollutant), and ammonia (a commercial cleaning product and caustic volatile material).

(Percent Absorption vs. Time – 120 minute time period)

 

EnviroKlenz Technical Information

Figure 2: Percent chemical pollutant removed by EnviroKlenz technology

Diamine Challenge: When challenged against cadaverine (a diamine), EnviroKlenz was highly effective in reducing the concentration of this pollutant in the headspace as demonstrated by the greater than 99.9% removed result. The commercial product was not effective against diamine.

Acid Challenge: The isovaleric acid, was easily removed by EnviroKlenz. Greater than 99% of the GC- MS detectable chemical was eliminated from the system. The commercial product showed some success against this compound due to the basic pH of compounds, but it was not as effective EnviroKlenz.

Aldehyde Challenge: When EnviroKlenz was challenged against acetaldehyde, a major toxic component of tobacco smoke and indoor pollutant, it removed greater than 99.9 % of the chemical from the headspace. The commercial product had no effect against acetaldehyde (less than 1%).

Mercaptan Challenge: Ethyl mercaptan, the sulfur-containing pollutant, was readily neutralized (99.9+%)byEnviroKlenz. EnviroKlenzwasovertwiceaseffectiveasthecommercialabsorber(43%).

Amine Challenge: Both products had efficacy against ammonia, however the commercial product did not exhibit the broad capabilities against all the other chemical classes like EnviroKlenz.

The EnviroKlenz technology utilizes a variety of physical and chemical mechanisms to capture and destroy chemical pollutants. The primary method of capture is physical through the interaction of the high surface area EnviroKlenz metal oxides with the chemical. The EnviroKlenz active components have numerous surface sites to attract and, based on its chemistry, then react with the chemical pollutant. The various mechanisms of reaction are illustrated below, but one key aspect that is common among them is the reaction byproducts are surface bound to the metal oxide surface.

Let’s explore some of these mechanisms…

EnviroKlenz Technical Information

Organic Acids: The metal oxides of EnviroKlenz treat organic acids such as acetic, isovaleric, and propionic acids by acid-base reactions in which the Lewis acid sites of metal ions bind the carboxylate moieties.

Thiols: Sulfhydryl compounds such as methanethiol, ethanethiol, and hydrogen sulfide are neutralized through the attraction of the sulfur atom, a Lewis base, for the Lewis acidic metal ions, together with deprotonation of the sulfhydryl group by oxide anions.

EnviroKlenz Technical Information

Amines: Nitrogen compound pollutants, including aliphatics such as cadaverine and putrescine as well as heterocycles such as skatole and indole, react with EnviroKlenz by means of the strong attraction between nitrogen and the highly active metal ions of metal oxides.

Ketone/Aldehydes/Alcohols

There are at least 40 carcinogens among the more than 3,800 chemicals in tobacco smoke. The chemicals in tobacco smoke include nicotine, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, acetaldehyde, methyl chloride and pyridine. Many of these toxins are found in higher concentrations in tobacco smoke than in mainstream smoke (the smoke inhaled by smokers). The U.S. Surgeon General and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health have found that simply separating smokers and nonsmokers in the workplace or in public places does not adequately protect nonsmokers from these chemical hazards.

The residual odor left from tobacco smoke is evidence that these toxic compounds still persist even after the “smoke” has dissipated. These toxic chemicals settle on walls, drapes, furniture and floors where they still pose the same toxic health threat days or weeks after they were release. Simply masking these odors offers no health benefits to individuals who are exposed to these compounds regularly.

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